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Remote Work Regulations in Spain: A Complete Guide

September 25, 2023

Remote work has witnessed unprecedented growth in recent years, transforming the way businesses operate and employees perform their duties. In Spain, this shift towards remote work has been attributed by the global pandemic, prompting the need for clear regulations to govern this evolving landscape.

Understanding the legal foundations of remote work is not only crucial for businesses seeking to harness the benefits of this arrangement, but also for employees seeking to protect their rights and well-being. In this guide, we'll dive into the specifics of remote work regulations in Spain, highlighting the main aspects that both employers and remote workers should be aware of.

Remote Work in Spain: Legal Foundations

To ensure a smooth and legally compliant transition to remote work, it's essential to grasp the comprehensive provisions and legal foundations that are implemented in Spain. These key legal frameworks include:

Worker Statute

The Worker Statute, (Estatuto de los Trabajadores), outlines the rights and responsibilities of workers and employers in the country. It serves as the primary legal framework for remote workers, and covering areas such as employment contracts, working hours, wages, benefits, and employee rights. In addition, addresses issues such as equipment, expenses, and work-life balance for telecommuters.

Collective Bargaining Agreements

Collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) known as "convenios colectivos," establish employment terms for all sectors, including remote workers. These negotiated contracts between employers and labor unions set rules for wages, hours, benefits, and work conditions.  Once approved, CBAs become legally binding and can be enforced through labor courts, ensuring equitable treatment for all, including remote workers.

Spanish Labor Law

Spanish labor law is a set of regulations covering employment contracts, working hours, leave, non-discrimination, termination, collective bargaining, workplace safety. Key aspects include equal treatment, protection of workers' rights, and provisions for different types of contracts. It also addresses recent changes related to teleworking. Employers and employees should stay updated on labor law developments and adhere to its provisions. Violations may result in penalties.

Law 10/2021 for Remote Working

Law 10/2021 is a legal framework addressing various employment and social issues, including remote work, equality, flexible hours, digital rights, and occupational safety. It encourages social dialogue, protects worker rights. It aims to adapt labor conditions to the evolving work landscape and promote fairness in the workplace.

Remote Work Agreements

One of the fundamental elements of remote work in Spain is the remote work agreement. This written contract outlines the terms and conditions of the remote work arrangement, addressing points such as:

  • Work Hours: The agreement should specify the expected work hours and availability of the remote worker, ensuring clarity on when work should be performed. In doing so, employers and remote employees can ensure a mutual understanding of when work should be performed.
  • Communication Expectations: The remote work agreement serves as the blueprint for how communication will occur between the remote worker and the employer. It should detail preferred communication channels, response times, and protocols for staying connected.
  • Data Security: Remote work agreements should dedicate a section to address data security concerns. This involves outlining the measures put in place to protect sensitive company and client information. Whether it's through encrypted communication tools, secure access protocols, or other safeguards, a robust data security framework instills confidence in both parties that data will remain confidential and protected.

Teleworking Conditions and Rights

Remote workers in Spain have rights and obligations that should be clearly understood by both employers and employees:


Remote workers are entitled to receive their regular compensation as specified in their employment contracts. This includes their base salary, bonuses, and any other financial benefits. Any additional expenses incurred due to remote work, such as internet costs, may be subject to negotiation and agreement.

Working Hours

Employers must ensure that remote workers adhere to their agreed-upon working hours.  Overtime should be monitored and compensated in accordance with Spanish labor laws. Additionally, adequate rest periods should be provided to prevent burnout and promote a healthy work-life balance.

Right to Disconnect

Spanish labor laws recognize and emphasize the "right to disconnect" for remote workers. This fundamental right grants remote employees the authority to disengage from work-related tasks outside of their agreed-upon working hours.

Employers are legally obligated to respect and uphold this right to disconnect. This means refraining from contacting remote workers, expecting them to respond to work-related matters, or assigning additional tasks beyond their working hours.

Hybrid Work Models

Hybrid work models, which combine remote and in-office work, have become increasingly popular in Spain. Employers should consider the following when implementing hybrid work arrangements:

Effective Management: Employers must adapt their management practices to accommodate remote and in-office employees, setting clear expectations, metrics, and goals for all team members regardless of their location. Managers need proper tools and training to support remote workers and ensure productivity and team cohesion, regardless of where they work.

Clear Communication: Employers should establish open channels, including regular meetings and messaging platforms, to promote collaboration among remote and in-office team members. Transparent communication keeps remote workers engaged, informed, and prevents isolation. It also fosters idea exchange and feedback, enhancing the overall success of the hybrid work model.

Tax Implications

Remote work, while offering flexibility and convenience, can introduce complex tax considerations for both remote workers and their employers. It's crucial to understand the following aspects:

Income Tax

Remote workers should be aware of how their remote work arrangement impacts their income tax obligations. These obligations can vary depending on factors such as the worker's physical location, tax residency status, and the tax laws of both their home country and the location where they are performing remote work. Some of these obligations include:

  • Tax Residency: Remote workers may be considered tax residents of their home country or the country where they are performing remote work, or in some cases, both. Understanding the rules governing tax residency is essential to ensure compliance with income tax regulations.
  • Cross-Border Taxation: For remote workers who are performing their duties in a country other than their home country, there may be implications related to cross-border taxation. This can involve understanding the tax treaties and agreements between the home country and the host country, which may impact the taxation of income earned through remote work.


Employers should also be aware of potential tax deductions associated with remote work. These deductions can help mitigate the costs associated with supporting remote work infrastructure and remote workers themselves. Common deductions may include:

  • Remote Work Infrastructure: Employers may be eligible for tax deductions related to expenses incurred in providing remote work infrastructure. This can encompass costs associated with setting up and maintaining remote workstations, providing necessary equipment, and ensuring secure and efficient remote work capabilities.
  • Support for Remote Workers: Employers that provide support to remote workers, such as allowances for home office expenses or reimbursement for internet costs, may be able to claim tax deductions for these expenses. Ensuring proper documentation and compliance with tax regulations is essential in this context.

Occupational Health and Safety

Remote work has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, and with the advent of technology, more employees have the flexibility to work from home or other remote locations. Employers have a responsibility to ensure that their remote workers have a safe and healthy work environment, even if it's outside the traditional office setting.

Ergonomic Workspaces

Ensuring that remote workers have ergonomic workspaces is crucial for their health and productivity. Ergonomics focuses on designing workspaces and equipment to fit the individual and minimize physical strain or discomfort. Here are some key considerations:

  • Proper Seating: Remote workers should have access to a comfortable chair that provides proper lumbar support to reduce the risk of back pain and other musculoskeletal issues.
  • Ergonomic Desk: A desk or workspace that accommodates a computer, monitor, keyboard, and mouse at the correct height can help prevent repetitive strain injuries and discomfort.
  • Regular Breaks: Encourage remote workers to take regular breaks to stretch and move around, reducing the risk of prolonged sitting-related health issues.

Occupational Risk Prevention

Employers are legally obligated to consider and address occupational risks for remote workers, just as they would for on-site employees. This involves a thorough evaluation of the home workspace to identify and mitigate safety hazards. Here are some important steps:

  • Risk Assessment: Employers should conduct a comprehensive risk assessment of the remote worker's home office. This assessment should consider potential hazards such as trip hazards, electrical safety, fire safety, and ergonomic issues.
  • Training and Education: Employers should provide training and education to remote workers on occupational health and safety best practices. This includes guidance on how to set up their workspace ergonomically and how to identify and report safety hazards.
  • Regular Inspections: Periodic inspections of the remote worker's home office can help ensure that safety standards are maintained over time.
  • Emergency Procedures: Remote workers should be informed of emergency procedures and have access to necessary safety equipment, such as fire extinguishers or first-aid kits.
  • Communication: Employers should maintain open lines of communication with remote workers so that any safety concerns or issues can be promptly addressed.

Compliance and Reporting

Compliance with remote work regulations is essential for both employers and employees:

Employer Responsibilities

Employers are legally bound to ensure that their remote work policies and practices are fully aligned with the intricate web of Spanish labor laws and regulations. This means that remote work arrangements should be designed in a way that respects and upholds the rights and protections afforded to employees under Spanish employment law.

Non-compliance with remote work regulations can result in fines for employers “between €70 and €225,018 depending on the degree of violation of the law or the agreement with the worker.”

Reporting Issues

Remote workers should know how to report and resolve issues, often through a designated contact like a remote work coordinator or HR representative. Employers should also establish a process for documenting and investigating complaints, thereby ensuring that issues are not only addressed but also resolved in a fair and timely manner.

Challenges and Best Practices

As remote work continues to evolve, challenges may arise. Employers and employees can navigate these challenges by adhering to best practices:

Effective Communication: Clear and consistent communication is essential for remote work success. Employers should establish communication norms and channels that foster collaboration.

Performance Management: Performance should be measured based on outcomes rather than hours worked. Employers should focus on results and provide feedback accordingly.

Professional Development: Remote workers should proactively seek opportunities for professional development and training to remain competitive in the job market.

Stay Compliant with an Employer of Record (EOR)

Remote work has evolved into an integral component of the contemporary work landscape in Spain. With its far-reaching implications for both employers and employees, understanding the legal framework and regulations governing remote work is vital.

If you’re looking to hire employees in Spain or anywhere else in the world, consider partnering with an Employer of Record (EOR) like Remofirst to help expand your global operations affordably.

Explore our comprehensive Spain Country Guide to learn how Remofirst can seamlessly assist your business in fully complying with Spanish regulations when hiring in Spain.